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||An iron based mixture is considered to be an alloy
steel when it contains more than 1.65 wt% of Manganese (Mn), 0.5 wt%
of Silicon (Si), 0.6 wt% of Copper (Cu) and/or other minimum quantities
of alloying elements such as Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum
(Mo), or Tungsten (W). Through combining different quantities and
types of alloying elements, a wide variety of distinct properties
can be produced in steel.
||Arcing is the formation of an electric arc between the graphite
electrode(s) of the furnace and the conductive content of the furnace
such as steel scrap or molten steel. The arcing process that takes
place in an electric arc furnace (EAF) is similar in principle to
that of electric arc welding, except that the current is much higher
in the EAF.
||Long products that are rolled from billets. The two common categories
are merchant bar and reinforcement bar (rebar). Merchant bars include
rounds, flats, angles, squares and channels. These products are often
further processed to produce a wide variety of products such as furniture,
stair railing, farm equipment, etc. Reinforcement bars are used predominantly
for reinforcing concrete structure such as highways, bridges and buildings.
At our plant in Singapore, we only produce rounds ranging from 10mm
to 32mm and reinforcement bars from 10mm to 50mm.
||Semi-finished steel forms that are used for the production of long
products. Billets generally have square cross-sectional areas compared
to blooms and slabs, which generally have larger aspect ratios. Billets
can be produced from a caster or rolled from a bloom.
NatSteel Holdings produces most of the billets it consumes in-house
with continuous casting technology. Only a small proportion of billets
(special grades) are purchased from international steel manufacturers.
In-house production of billets provides flexibility in terms of
material properties and production yield optimisation.
||A towering cylinder lined with heat resistant (refractory) bricks,
used by integrated steel works to smelt iron from iron ore. Its name
is derived from the blast of hot air and gases forced up through the
iron ore, coke and lime stone loaded in the furnace. Inside the blast
furnace, the iron ore is chemically reduced to iron and physically
converted (melted) to liquid iron. This is the iron-making process.
NatSteel Holdings' steel factory produces steel from scrap and does
not use blast furnaces.
||A type of steel whose properties are determined primarily by the
percentage of carbon present. Minor elements are present in minute
quantities below the amounts found in alloy steels.
||The process of pouring molten metal into a mould such that upon
cooling, the solidified metal retains the shape of the mould.
||Continuous forming of semi-finished steel products such as billets,
blooms and slabs. Molten metal is poured continuously from a buffer
refractory container known as a tundish into a water-cooled copper
mould of the caster.
Molten steel solidifies when it contacts the water-cooled mould
to form an external shell of sufficient strength that will hold
the remaining molten steel in its core. A spray of water assists
the extraction of heat from this partially solidified steel strand.
At the bottom of the steel caster, the steel strand is torch-cut
into required lengths. Continuous casters can be used for producing
slabs, blooms and billets, and are usually able to cast a few strands
of steel simultaneously.
NatSteel Holdings uses a five-strand continuous caster that produces
billets with cross-sectional areas of up 164mm².
||The feeding of a single load of raw materials into the furnace.
||It is one of the most important operations in the construction of
a reinforced concrete product. It involves cutting and bending the
reinforcement bar into the correct size and shape as specified in
structural drawings so as to allow trouble-free placement of the steel
in the structural member at the construction site.
Cutting and bending can be done on the construction site itself
a cut-and-bend shop. The former often results in inappropriate dimensioning
and inaccurate bending. The latter provides a controlled and organised
environment where skilled operators produce consistently good quality
With prefabricated cut-and-bend rebars, construction sites reduce
material wastage and fixing time significantly.
NatSteel Holdings is considered a pioneer of cut-and-bend services for Singapore's construction
industry and operates one of the world's largest single cut-and-bend
||A steelmaking furnace which predominantly uses scrap as an iron
source. The furnace houses either one or three graphite electrodes
from which an electric arc can be generated to provide heat to melt
the steel scrap.
Electricity can be applied either as direct current (DC), where
only one electrode is required, or alternate current (AC), where
three electrodes are required. These two types of furnaces are respectively
known as DC furnace and AC furnace.
Our factory operates a DC Finger Shaft Furnace with an 80-tonne
capacity per heat.
||Steel products with typical aspect ratios of greater than 100. Examples
are sheets, strips and plates used in automotives, shipbuilding and
electronic white goods.
||A refractory brick-lined steel vessel that is usually shaped like
a bucket. It is used for transferring molten steel between processes
in a steel plant. For instance, a ladle can be used to transfer molten
steel from the electric arc furnace to the ladle furnace for secondary
refinement and then to transfer the refined molten steel to the continuous
||Refers to steel products such as bars, rods and structural constructions
that are "long" rather than "flat". These are
used for building projects.
The reinforcement bars and
wire rods produced at NatSteel Holdings
are available in various grades for different applications.
||Another name for
Welded Wire Mesh
||Metric tonne — 1 tonne is equivalent to
||A technology which involves casting building
units (e.g. toilets, rooms, balconies, etc) away from the
installation site, so that casting and on-site work can take place
simultaneously and reduce project time
||Wires (mild or high tensile steel round bars
with diameters ranging from 5mm to 40mm) that are used in precast
||Refers to melted iron (containing carbon above 1.5%) produced in
a blast furnace. Molten iron is poured through a trench before flowing
into shallow earthen moulds arranged along the side of the trench.
As this resembles newborn pigs suckling at their mother’s side,
the trench became known as the “sow” and the moulds as
At NatSteel Holdings, pig iron is sometimes used as an alternative
iron source to produce special grade steel which otherwise cannot
be made from steel scrap which contains a higher proportion of impurities.
||Spontaneous disintegration of radioactive elements (e.g. Co-60,
Ra-226, Cs-137) into other elements, accompanied by the radiation
of high energy and harmful y-rays.
If a radioactive material is melted in the
electric arc furnance,
Co-60 is the most likely radioactive element to be alloyed with
the steel due to its close melting point, while Cs-137 ends up in
the dust and Ra-226 in the slag.
NatSteel Holdings screens all incoming scrap via a radiation detection
system before it is charged into the furnace. Steel samples from
the furnace, billets and our steel
products are also tested at the lab with a radiation measurement
unit. NatSteel Holdings adopts a stringent
limit of 0.1Bq/g (the International Atomic Energy Agency recommends
0.3Bq/g) of total radioactivity in all of its products.
||Another name for reinforcement bars
||Steel rods used to reinforce or strengthen thick concrete structures.
||Another name for wire rods
||Heat resistant material used for lining the furnace and ladle to
provide heat insulation and protect the equipment that is usually
made of steel. Refractory material is available in either brick form
or paste form.
||The reduction in diameter of semi-finished steel products such as
billets, blooms and slabs by squeezing the products between horizontal
or vertical pairs of rollers.
The distinction between cold- and hot-rolling is the temperature
at which rolling is carried out. Cold-rolling often takes place
at room temperature while the hot rolling temperature range varies
from metal to metal. The two processes impart different properties
to the products.
NatSteel Holdings uses cross-country, single- and two-strand tandem
||A by-product of the iron and steelmaking process comprising largely
of limestone. During steelmaking, slag, which has a lower density
than molten steel, floats above the molten steel and acts as a scavenger
for undesirable elements in the steel.
Once cooled and solidified, slag can be used in soil mixtures,
road stones and cement.
||Scrap is the collective name for ferrous components that have reached
the end of their useful life cycle, for instance, unserviceable machine
parts, steel parts of ships, bridge structures, old car parts as well
as reverted ferrous materials from steelmaking.
||Cables produced by taking relevant diameters of wires braided
together in a bundle, and can be used in
precast concrete or wall
anchors, lifting strands, etc.
||The greatest longitudinal stress a material can
bear without tearing apart
||The running off of molten steel from the tap
hole in a furnace or vessel
||A shallow, refractory-lined basin that is placed under a ladle and
above a continuous caster. A tundish acts as a buffer by receiving
the liquid steel from the ladle prior to entering the cast, allowing
the operator to regulate the flow of metal into the mould.
Welded wire mesh
||Fabric reinforcement that is made up mainly of high-strength wires
that are welded at intersections. The use of mesh as reinforcement
significantly reduces cutting and fixing time at construction sites.
It also enables the simplification of the engineering design and drawing.
NatSteel Holdings produces mesh and prefabricated steel structures,
which cut wastage, reduce land and labour costs, and are delivered
just-in-time to sites.
||Round steel bars of diameters ranging from 5.5mm to 16mm that are
hot-rolled from billets and coiled at the end of the rolling process.
Rods are semi-finished products used as feed for wire mills or raw
material for bolts and nuts. Some wire rods are also sold to building
contractors and other steel processing plants.
NatSteel Holdings produces rods of diameters ranging from 5.5mm to
16mm. Examples of the grades of rods produced are:
• Low Carbon Quality
• Welding Electrode Quality
• High Carbon Quality
• Cold Heading Quality (Rimmed, Aluminium-killed)